Date: 2019/09/21 (initial publish), 2021/07/13 (last update)

Source: en/note-00006.md

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Standard GNOME desktop under Debian Buster 10 has moved to use Wayland.

Although the migration from X to Wayland is mostly transparent to the end-user like me, there are some exceptions.

How to check if an application uses Wayland or X

You need to have x11-apps package installed.

How to reassign Caps-key as Esc-key

For vim user, reassigning practically unused Caps-key as Esc-key is very desirable customization. This becomes more important on laptop PCs since their Esc-key tends to be very small.

How to reassign Caps-key as Esc-key under Wayland.

For GNOME, GNOME Tweaks can reassign Caps-key as Esc-key for gnome-terminal which is a Wayland application.

Old tricks based on X doesn’t work any more.

How to reassign Caps-key as Esc-key under Linux console

For Linux console, the default keyboard layout is shared with X and described in /etc/default/keyboard on somewhat recent Debian.


Values used here can be found in /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst.

For Bulleseye 11, changing this only doesn’t change actual keyboard layout behavior of Linux console upon reboot. I needed to run the following command manually in Linux console to activate this configuration:

 $ sudo setupcon -v -k

I suppose, Wayland system doesn’t run keyboard initialization code for Linux console upon reboot.

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