Standard GNOME desktop under Debian Buster 10 has moved to use Wayland.
Although the migration from X to Wayland is mostly transparent to the end-user like me, there are some exceptions.
How to check if an application uses Wayland or X
- Execute “
xeyes &” from a terminal console .
- Move mouse pointer over to an application in question.
- If eyes are responsive, it’s an X application.
- If eyes aren’t responsive, it’s a Wayland application.
You need to have
x11-apps package installed.
How to reassign Caps-key as Esc-key
For vim user, reassigning practically unused Caps-key as Esc-key is very desirable customization. This becomes more important on laptop PCs since their Esc-key tends to be very small.
How to reassign Caps-key as Esc-key under Wayland.
For GNOME, GNOME Tweaks can reassign Caps-key as Esc-key for gnome-terminal which is a Wayland application.
Old tricks based on X doesn’t work any more.
How to reassign Caps-key as Esc-key under Linux console
For Linux console, the default keyboard layout is shared with X and
/etc/default/keyboard on somewhat recent Debian.
Values used here can be found in
For Bulleseye 11, changing this only doesn’t change actual keyboard layout behavior of Linux console upon reboot. I needed to run the following command manually in Linux console to activate this configuration:
$ sudo setupcon -v -k
I suppose, Wayland system doesn’t run keyboard initialization code for Linux console upon reboot.